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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 8, 2020

Registration No. 333-

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933


Ardelyx, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)


Delaware

    

26-1303944

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

34175 Ardenwood Blvd.

Fremont, CA 94555

(510) 745-1700

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)


Michael Raab

President & Chief Executive Officer

Ardelyx, Inc.

34175 Ardenwood Blvd.

Fremont, CA 94555

(510) 745-1700

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)


Copies to:

Mark V. Roeder, Esq.

Latham & Watkins LLP

140 Scott Drive

Menlo Park, CA 94025

Facsimile: (650) 463-2600

    

Elizabeth Grammer, Esq.

Chief Legal and Administrative Officer

Ardelyx, Inc.

34175 Ardenwood Blvd.

Fremont, CA 94555

(510) 745-1700


Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.


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If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  


CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

Title of each class of

securities to be registered

    

Amount to be

registered/proposed

maximum offering price

per unit/proposed

maximum aggregate

offering price

     

Amount of
registration fee

Common Stock

(1)(2)

 

Preferred Stock

(1)(2)

 

Debt Securities

(1)

 

Warrants

(1)

 

Units

(1)

 

Total

$250,000,000(3)

$32,450(4)

(1)An unspecified number of securities or aggregate principal amount, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices and, in addition, an unspecified number of additional shares of Common Stock is being registered as may be issued from time to time upon conversion of any Debt Securities that are convertible into Common Stock or pursuant to any anti-dilution adjustments with respect to any such convertible Debt Securities.
(2)Includes rights to acquire common stock or preferred stock of the Company under any shareholder rights plan then in effect, if applicable under the terms of any such plan.
(3)Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for shares of common stock that are issued upon conversion of debt securities or preferred stock or upon exercise of common stock warrants registered hereunder. The aggregate maximum offering price of all securities issued pursuant to this registration statement will not exceed $250,000,000.
(4)The registration fee has been calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.


The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $250,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units; and
a prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement with Jefferies LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any other securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in one or more prospectus supplements to the base prospectus. The prospectus supplement immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the prospectus supplement is included in the $250,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus. Any portion of the $100,000,000 included in the prospectus supplement that is not previously sold or included in an active placement notice pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $250,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, dated July 8, 2020.

PROSPECTUS

$250,000,000

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units


We may offer and sell up to $250,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.


INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ARDX.” On July 7, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $7.01 per share.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


The date of this prospectus is                    , 2020.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    

1

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

2

ABOUT ARDELYX

4

RISK FACTORS

5

USE OF PROCEEDS

6

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

7

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

12

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

20

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

22

GLOBAL SECURITIES

23

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

27

LEGAL MATTERS

29

EXPERTS

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $250,000,000 as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

When we refer to “Ardelyx,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Ardelyx, Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable series of securities.

Ardelyx® and our logo are some of our trademarks used in this prospectus. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames, and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our website address is www.ardelyx.com. The information on, or accessible through, our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 6, 2020;
the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on April 27, 2020;
our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 7, 2020;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 13, 2020, March 17, 2020 and June 10, 2020; and

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the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 9, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

Ardelyx, Inc.

34175 Ardenwood Blvd.

Fremont, CA 94555

(510)745-1700

Attention: Chief Legal and Administrative Officer

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement.

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ABOUT ARDELYX

We are a specialized biopharmaceutical company focused on developing first-in-class medicines to improve treatment for people with kidney and cardiovascular diseases. This includes patients with chronic kidney disease, or CKD, on dialysis suffering from elevated serum phosphorus, or hyperphosphatemia; and CKD patients and/or heart failure patients with elevated serum potassium, or hyperkalemia. Our lead program is tenapanor, a first-in-class medicine for which we submitted a New Drug Application, or NDA, in June 2020 for the control of serum phosphorus in adult patients with CKD on dialysis. Tenapanor has a unique mechanism of action and acts locally in the gut to inhibit the sodium hydrogen exchanger 3, or NHE3. This results in the tightening of the epithelial cell junctions, thereby significantly reducing paracellular uptake of phosphate, the primary pathway of phosphate absorption.

We were founded in October 2007 as a Delaware corporation under the name Nteryx, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 34175 Ardenwood Blvd., Fremont, CA 94555, and our telephone number is (510) 745-1700. Our website address is www.ardelyx.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only. References in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company” or “Ardelyx” refer to Ardelyx, Inc.

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, which has been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.” For a complete description, you should refer to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, copies of which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

General

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.

Common Stock

Voting Rights

Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of holders of 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding voting stock will be required to take certain actions, including amending certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, such as the provisions relating to amending our amended and restated bylaws, the classified board and director liability.

Dividends

Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

Liquidation

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Rights and Preferences

Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

Fully Paid and Nonassessable.

All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued in this offering will be, fully paid and nonassessable.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption,

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liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. No shares of preferred stock are outstanding, and we have no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware Law

Some provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could make the following transactions more difficult: acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions that might result in a premium over the market price for our shares.

These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Under Section 203, we would generally be prohibited from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the time that this stockholder became an interested stockholder unless:

prior to this time, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
at or subsequent to such time, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Under Section 203, a “business combination” includes:

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder, subject to limited exceptions;

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any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

The ability to authorize undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

Special Stockholder Meetings

Our amended and restated bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board of directors, Chief Executive Officer or President, or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals

Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.

Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.

Classified Board; Election and Removal of Directors; Filling Vacancies

Our board of directors is divided into three classes. The directors in each class will serve for a three-year term, one class being elected each year by our stockholders, with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, our stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for the removal of any of our directors only for cause and requires at least a 66 2/3% stockholder vote. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by a resolution of the board of directors unless the board of directors determines that such vacancies shall be filled by the stockholders. This system of electing and removing directors and filling vacancies may tend to discourage a third party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, because it generally makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors.

Choice of Forum

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty, or other wrongdoing by, any of our directors, officers, employees or stockholders; any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation

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Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Although our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provision described above, it is possible that a court could find that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

Amendment of Charter Provisions

The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock, would require approval by holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of our then outstanding voting stock.

The provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our Common Stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

Limitations of Liability and Indemnification Matters

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that limit the liability of our directors for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Consequently, our directors will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as directors, except liability for:

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;
any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; or
any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that we are required to indemnify our directors and officers, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Our amended and restated bylaws also provide that we are obligated to advance expenses incurred by a director or officer in advance of the final disposition of any action or proceeding, and permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director, employee or other agent for any liability arising out of his or her actions in that capacity regardless of whether we would otherwise be permitted to indemnify him or her under Delaware law. We have entered and expect to continue to enter into agreements to indemnify our directors, executive officers and other employees as determined by our board of directors. With specified exceptions, these agreements provide for indemnification for related expenses including, among other things, attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by any of these individuals in any action or proceeding. We believe that these bylaw provisions and indemnification agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers. We also maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.

The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breach of their fiduciary duty. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against our directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and our stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that we pay the costs of settlement and damage.

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The Nasdaq Global Market Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ARDX.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a third party to be identified therein. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

As used in this section only, “Ardelyx,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Ardelyx, Inc. excluding our subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. (Section 2.2) The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. (Section 2.1) We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);
the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;
any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;
the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

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the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;
the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;
the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;
the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;
the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;
if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;
the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;
any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;
the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

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any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and
whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees. (Section 2.2)

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. (Section 2.4) No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange. (Section 2.7)

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities. (Article IV)

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

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Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than Ardelyx) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and
immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us. (Section 5.1)

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);
default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;
default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Ardelyx and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;
certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Ardelyx; and
any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement. (Section 6.1)

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. (Section 6.1) The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof. (Section 6.1)

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made,

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but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. (Section 6.2) We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. (Section 7.1(e)) Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. (Section 6.12)

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and
the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. (Section 6.7)

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment. (Section 6.8)

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. (Section 4.3) If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities. (Section 7.5)

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;
to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;
to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;
to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

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to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;
to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;
to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;
to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;
to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;
to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or
to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act. (Section 9.1)

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;
reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;
reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;
reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;
waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;
make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security. (Section 9.3)

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. (Section 9.2) The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of

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the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. (Section 6.13)

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred. (Section 8.3)

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and
any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

The conditions include:

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and
delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the beneficial owners of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred. (Section 8.4)

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No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Securityholders

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or securityholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability.

This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum. (Section 10.10)

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock;
the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;
the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
United States Federal income tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled to:

vote, consent or receive dividends;
receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or
exercise any rights as stockholders of Ardelyx.

Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of preferred stock or common stock at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office

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indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

the title of the series of units;
identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;
the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;
a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and
any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

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GLOBAL SECURITIES

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

DTC has advised us that it is:

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;
a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;
a member of the Federal Reserve System;
a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and
a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

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So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

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As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;
we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or
an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.

Euroclear and Clearstream

If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A., which we refer to as “Clearstream,” or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, which we refer to as “Euroclear,” either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.

Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.

Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.

Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.

Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with the DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through

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DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.

Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

Other

The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, “at the market offerings,” negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
at negotiated prices.

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

Any common stock or preferred stock will be listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed

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if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, underwriters or other persons acting as agents may be authorized to solicit offers by institutions or other suitable purchasers to purchase the securities at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement, pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. These purchasers may include, among others, commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities covered by the delayed delivery contracts will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and agents will not have any responsibility with respect to the validity or performance of these contracts.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

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LEGAL MATTERS

Latham & Watkins LLP will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Ardelyx, Inc. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

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The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, dated July 8, 2020

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

LOGO

Up to $100,000,000

Common Stock

We have entered into a sales agreement with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus supplement we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time through Jefferies, acting as agent.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ARDX.” On July 7, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $7.01 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Market or any other existing trading market for our common stock. Jefferies is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent on a best efforts basis and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Jefferies and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation to Jefferies for sales of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will be an amount of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, please read the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Jefferies

                , 2020.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

Page

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

S-1

MARKET, INDUSTRY AND OTHER DATA

S-2

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

S-3

THE OFFERING

S-5

RISK FACTORS

S-6

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

S-7

USE OF PROCEEDS

S-8

DILUTION

S-9

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

S-11

LEGAL MATTERS

S-12

EXPERTS

S-12

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

S-12

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

S-12

Prospectus

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

1

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

2

ABOUT ARDELYX

4

RISK FACTORS

5

USE OF PROCEEDS

6

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

7

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

12

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

20

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

22

GLOBAL SECURITIES

23

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

27

LEGAL MATTERS

29

EXPERTS

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus supplement at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates.

We have not, and Jefferies has not, authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and Jefferies take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and Jefferies is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction where an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

When we refer to “Ardelyx” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Ardelyx, Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of common stock of the Company.

Ardelyx® and our logo are some of our trademarks used in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus also include trademarks, tradenames, and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.

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MARKET, INDUSTRY AND OTHER DATA

This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference herein, contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain drugs, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, their projected growth rates and the incidence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. In that regard, when we refer to one or more sources of this type of data in any paragraph, you should assume that other data of this type appearing in the same paragraph is derived from the same sources, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary provides a general overview of selected information and does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying our common stock. Therefore, you should read the entire prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering carefully, including the information incorporated by reference, before deciding to invest in our common stock. Investors should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 and the “Risk Factors” section, as well as our audited financial statements and related notes thereto, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 as well as our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020 and any subsequent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference herein.

Ardelyx, Inc.

Overview

We are a specialized biopharmaceutical company focused on developing first-in-class medicines to improve treatment for people with kidney and cardiovascular diseases. This includes patients with chronic kidney disease, or CKD, on dialysis suffering from elevated serum phosphorus, or hyperphosphatemia; and CKD patients and/or heart failure patients with elevated serum potassium, or hyperkalemia. Our lead program is tenapanor, a first-in-class medicine for which we submitted a New Drug Application, or NDA, in June 2020 for the control of serum phosphorus in adult patients with CKD on dialysis. Tenapanor has a unique mechanism of action and acts locally in the gut to inhibit the sodium hydrogen exchanger 3, or NHE3. This results in the tightening of the epithelial cell junctions, thereby significantly reducing paracellular uptake of phosphate, the primary pathway of phosphate absorption. Tenapanor, if approved, would be the first therapy for phosphate management that is not a phosphate binder. As tenapanor is a novel, potent, small molecule there would be significantly less pill burden than with phosphate binders. Tenapanor is dosed as a single pill, twice-daily, which we believe could greatly improve patient adherence and compliance and free patients from having to take multiple pills before every meal.

We have evaluated tenapanor in a Phase 3 program for the control of serum phosphorus in CKD patients on dialysis. In December 2019, we reported statistically significant efficacy results from our second monotherapy Phase 3 clinical trial, the PHREEDOM trial. The PHREEDOM trial is a one-year study with a 26-week open-label treatment period followed by a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized withdrawal period and a 14-week open-label safety extension period. An active safety control group, for safety analysis only, received sevelamer, open-label, for the entire 52-week study period.

Patients completing the PHREEDOM trial from both the tenapanor arm and the sevelamer active safety control arm had the option to participate in NORMALIZE, an ongoing open-label 18-month extension study. The goal of this study is to further our understanding of the potential for the dual mechanism of tenapanor and sevelamer to reduce patients’ serum phosphorus levels towards the normal range (2.5 – 4.5 mg/dL) while minimizing medication burden. In the NORMALIZE extension study patients completing PHREEDOM on tenapanor continued therapy with tenapanor, and those patients completing the safety control arm of PHREEDOM on sevelamer transitioned to tenapanor. In June 2020, we reported data from a planned second analysis demonstrating that the foundational use of tenapanor as monotherapy or in combination with sevelamer carbonate produces a significant phosphorus-lowering effect with a mean serum phosphorous reduction of 2.33 mg/dL, from a mean baseline phosphorus of 7.27 mg/dL at the beginning of the PHREEDOM trial to a mean of 4.94 mg/dL at the time of the analysis. Of the 171 patients in this interim analysis who completed up to 9 months of treatment in the NORMALIZE extension study, up to 47.4% achieved a normal serum phosphorus level, and of those, the majority were on tenapanor alone or tenapanor with low dose sevelamer of ≤3 sevelamer tablets per day. The only adverse event reported in >5% of patients in NORMALIZE was diarrhea, with an incidence rate of 23.3%.

The PHREEDOM trial followed a successful monotherapy Phase 3 clinical trial completed in 2017, which achieved statistical significance for the primary endpoint . In addition, in September 2019, we reported positive results from the AMPLIFY trial, a Phase 3 study evaluating tenapanor in patients with CKD on dialysis who had uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia despite phosphate binder treatment.

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We are also advancing a small molecule potassium secretagogue program, RDX013, for the potential treatment of hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is a common problem in patients with heart and kidney disease, particularly in patients taking common blood pressure medications known as RAAS inhibitors, which inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Similar to what we have done with tenapanor in developing a non-binder approach for the treatment of elevated serum phosphate levels, RDX013 is designed to offer a non-binder alternative to lowering elevated potassium with a much lower pill burden than potassium binders and we believe may provide significant advantages as a stand-alone agent or in combination with potassium binders.

In addition to the development of tenapanor in our cardiorenal portfolio, we have developed tenapanor for the treatment of patients with IBS-C. On September 12, 2019, we received US FDA approval of IBSRELA® (tenapanor) for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in adults. IBS-C is a burdensome gastrointestinal, or GI, disorder affecting a significant number of people. It is characterized by significant abdominal pain, constipation, straining during bowel movements, bloating and/or gas.

By inhibiting NHE3 on the apical surface of the enterocytes, tenapanor reduces absorption of sodium from the small intestine and colon, resulting in an increase in water secretion into the intestinal lumen, which accelerates intestinal transit time and results in a softer stool consistency. Tenapanor has also been shown to reduce abdominal pain by decreasing visceral hypersensitivity and by decreasing intestinal permeability in animal models. In rat model of colonic hypersensitivity, tenapanor reduced visceral hyperalgesia and normalized colonic sensory neuronal excitability.

Corporate Information

We were founded in October 2007 as a Delaware corporation under the name Nteryx, Inc. We changed our name to Ardelyx, Inc. in June 2008. Our principal executive offices are located at 34175 Ardenwood Blvd., Fremont, CA 94555, and our telephone number is (510) 745-1700. Our website address is www.ardelyx.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference herein. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.

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THE OFFERING

Common stock offered by us

    

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

 

Up to 103,300,431 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 14,265,335 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $7.01 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on July 7, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

Manner of offering

 

At the market offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Jefferies LLC. See Plan of Distribution on page S-11.

Use of Proceeds

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, increasing our working capital and funding research and development, and capital expenditures. See Use of Proceeds on page S-6.

Risk Factors

 

You should read the Risk Factors section of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

Symbol on the Nasdaq Global Market

 

ARDX

The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 89,035,096 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, and excludes, in each case as of March 31, 2020:

8,803,605 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options having a weighted-average exercise price of $6.85 per share;
2,172,899 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants having an exercise price of $13.91 per share, which warrants expired in June 2020;
849,328 shares of common stock issuable upon the settlement of outstanding restricted stock units;
3,077,556 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2014 Equity Incentive Award Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan;
443,774 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and
1,000,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2016 Employment Commencement Inducement Plan.

Unless otherwise stated, all information contained in this prospectus supplement reflects an assumed public offering price of $7.01 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on July 7, 2020.

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RISK FACTORS

You should consider carefully the risks described below and discussed under the section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our quarterly report for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus supplement, and the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering before you make a decision to invest in our common stock. If any of the following events actually occur, our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risks described below are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the risks in this “Risk Factors” section and those contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein.”

Additional Risks Relating to this Offering

Our management team may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways which may not yield a significant return.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, increasing our working capital and funding research and development, and capital expenditures. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not increase our operating results or enhance the value of our common stock.

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of the common stock you purchase.

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 14,265,335 shares are sold at a price of $7.01 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on July 7, 2020, for aggregate proceeds of $100,000,000 in this offering, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will suffer immediate and substantial dilution of $4.44 per share, representing the difference between the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock as of March 31, 2020 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase common stock in this offering.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering. As of March 31, 2020, 14,174,263 shares of common stock were either subject to outstanding options or restricted stock unit awards, or reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans are eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Unless the context requires otherwise, in this prospectus supplement the terms “Ardelyx”, “we,” “us,” “our” and “the Company” refer to Ardelyx, Inc.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Any statements contained or incorporated by reference herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “potential,” “positioned,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other similar expressions that are predictions of or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our expectations regarding our plans for and our participation in the commercialization of tenapanor for the control of serum phosphorus in chronic kidney disease, or CKD, patients on dialysis, including our expectations regarding our plans to build our own sales and marketing organization to market and sell tenapanor for such indication;
our expectations regarding the potential market size and the size of the patient populations for our product candidates;
our ability to identify and validate targets and novel drug candidates using our proprietary drug discovery and design platform including the Ardelyx Primary Enterocyte and Colonocyte Culture System, or APECCS, or any other proprietary drug discovery and design platform we develop for the identification, screening, testing, design and development of new product candidates for the treatment of renal diseases;
the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;
estimates of our expenses, future revenue, capital requirements, our needs for additional financing and our ability to obtain additional capital;
uncertain negative impacts that COVID-19 may have on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and changes in overall volatility in the global economy;
our financial performance; and
developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry.

These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and management’s beliefs and assumptions and are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. As a result, any or all of our forward-looking statements in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus supplement may turn out to be inaccurate. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference herein and the discussion in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, as amended, in each of “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Potential investors are urged to consider these factors carefully in evaluating the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus, as applicable. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future. You should, however, review the factors and risks we describe in the reports we will file from time to time with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

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USE OF PROCEEDS

The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Jefferies as a source of financing. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, activities for the development and potential commercialization of tenanpanor for the control of serum phosphorus in chronic kidney disease, or CKD, patients on dialysis, as well as for clinical trials and nonclinical studies for other product candidates, and for general corporate purposes and working capital.

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including our clinical, pre-commercial and commercial activities with respect to tenapanor for the control of serum phosphorus in chronic kidney disease, our regulatory activities for tenapanor in such indication, our ability to establish one or more new collaborations for the commercialization of IBSRELA, the timing of potential future milestone payments from our current and future collaboration partners, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations and the amount of payments under our loan and security agreement with Solar Capital Ltd. and Western Alliance Bank. We therefore cannot estimate with certainty the amount of net proceeds to be used for the purposes described above. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds, if any, from this offering in interest-bearing investment-grade securities, certificates of deposit or government securities.

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DILUTION

Our historical net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 was approximately $167.8 million, or $1.88 per share. Our net tangible book value represents total tangible assets less total liabilities and convertible preferred stock, all divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding on March 31, 2020. Dilution in net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering.

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million in this offering at an assumed offering price of $7.01, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on July 7, 2020, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 would have been approximately $265.5 million, or $2.57 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.69 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $4.44 per share to new investors purchasing our common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

Assumed public offering price per share

    

    

    

$

7.01

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

$

1.88 

Increase per share attributable to new investors

$

0.69

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

$

2.57

Dilution per share to new investors

$

4.44

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $7.01 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million is sold at that price, would cause our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to be $2.62 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $5.39 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $7.01 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million is sold at that price, would cause our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to be $2.51 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $3.50 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

To the extent that outstanding options are exercised or outstanding restricted stock awards vest, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

The above discussion and table are based on 89,035,096 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, and excludes, in each case as of March 31, 2020:

8,803,605 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options having a weighted-average exercise price of $6.85 per share;
2,172,899 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants having an exercise price of $13.91 per share, which warrants expired in June 2020;
849,328 shares of common stock issuable upon the settlement of outstanding restricted stock units;

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3,077,556 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2014 Equity Incentive Award Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan;
443,774 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and
1,000,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2016 Employment Commencement Inducement Plan.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a sales agreement with Jefferies, under which we may offer and sell up to $100,000,000 of our shares of common stock from time to time through Jefferies acting as agent. Sales of our shares of common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

Each time we wish to issue and sell our shares of common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify Jefferies of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any limitation on the number of shares to be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Once we have so instructed Jefferies, unless Jefferies declines to accept the terms of such notice, Jefferies has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Jefferies under the sales agreement to sell our shares of common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

The settlement of sales of shares between us and Jefferies is generally anticipated to occur on the second trading day following the date on which the sale was made. Sales of our shares of common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Jefferies may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

We will pay Jefferies a commission of up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds we receive from each sale of our shares of common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse Jefferies for the fees and disbursements of its counsel, payable upon execution of the sales agreement, in an amount not to exceed $50,000, in addition to certain ongoing disbursements of its legal counsel. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding any commissions or expense reimbursement payable to Jefferies under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $168,000. The remaining sale proceeds, after deducting any other transaction fees, will equal our net proceeds from the sale of such shares.

Jefferies will provide written confirmation to us before the open on the Nasdaq Global Market on the day following each day on which our shares of common stock are sold under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on that day, the aggregate gross proceeds of such sales and the proceeds to us.

In connection with the sale of our shares of common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify Jefferies against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We have also agreed to contribute to payments Jefferies may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.

The offering of our shares of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all shares of common stock subject to the sales agreement and (ii) the termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein. We and Jefferies may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten trading days’ prior notice.

This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the sales agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part.

Jefferies and its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they have received, and may in the future receive customary fees. In the course of its business, Jefferies may actively trade our securities for its own account or for the accounts of customers, and, accordingly, Jefferies may at any time hold long or short positions in such securities.

A prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Jefferies, and Jefferies may distribute the prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus electronically.

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the issuance of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon by our counsel, Latham & Watkins LLP, Menlo Park, California. Jefferies LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, Menlo Park, California.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, of which this prospectus forms a part. The rules and regulations of the SEC allow us to omit from this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus certain information included in the registration statement. For further information about us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should refer to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed with the registration statement. With respect to the statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus regarding the contents of any agreement or any other document, in each instance, the statement is qualified in all respects by the complete text of the agreement or document, a copy of which has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with them which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces that statement. We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

We incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 6, 2020;
the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on April 27, 2020;

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our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 7, 2020;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 13, 2020, March 17, 2020 and June 10, 2020; and
the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 9, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

These documents may also be accessed on our website at www.ardelyx.com. Except as otherwise specifically incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, information contained in, or accessible through, our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

We will furnish without charge to you, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference, including exhibits to these documents by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

Ardelyx, Inc.

34175 Ardenwood Blvd.

Fremont, CA 94555

(510) 745-1700

Attention: Chief Legal and Administrative Officer

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LOGO

Up to $100,000,000

Common Stock

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

Jefferies

, 2020



Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following is an estimate of the expenses (all of which are to be paid by the registrant) that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby, other than the SEC registration fee.

SEC registration fee

    

$

32,450.00 

The Nasdaq Global Market supplemental listing fee

$

(1)

Fees and expenses of the trustee

$

(1)

Printing expenses

$

(1)

Legal fees and expenses

$

(1)

Accounting fees and expenses

$

(1)

Blue Sky, qualification fees and expenses

$

(1)

Transfer agent fees and expenses

$

(1)

Miscellaneous

$

(1)

Total

$

(1)


(1)These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Subsection (a) of Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or the DGCL, empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or who is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful.

Subsection (b) of Section 145 empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person acted in any of the capacities set forth above, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Section 145 further provides that to the extent a director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith; that indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the indemnified party may be entitled; and the indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to

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a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of such person’s heirs, executors and administrators. Section 145 also empowers the corporation to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liabilities under Section 145.

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides that a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may contain a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, provided that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

Any underwriting agreement or distribution agreement that the registrant enters into with any underwriters or agents involved in the offering or sale of any securities registered hereby may require such underwriters or dealers to indemnify the registrant, some or all of its directors and officers and its controlling persons, if any, for specified liabilities, which may include liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws provide for the indemnification provisions described above and elsewhere herein. We have entered into separate indemnification agreements with our directors and officers which may be broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained in the Delaware General Corporation Law. These indemnification agreements generally require us, among other things, to indemnify our officers and directors against liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers, other than liabilities arising from willful misconduct. These indemnification agreements also generally require us to advance any expenses incurred by the directors or officers as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. In addition, we have purchased a policy of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that insures our directors and officers against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment in some circumstances. These indemnification provisions and the indemnification agreements may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of our officers and directors for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act.

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Item 16. Exhibits.

(a)Exhibits

EXHIBIT INDEX

Exhibit
Number

  

Exhibit Description

  

Incorporated by Reference to Filings
Indicated

  

Provided

Herewith

  

  

Form

  

Exhibit No.

  

Filing Date

  

1.1*

  

Form of Underwriting Agreement.

  

  

  

  

1.2

Open Market Sales AgreementSM, by and between Ardelyx, Inc. and Jefferies LLC, dated July 8, 2020.

X

3.1

  

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Ardelyx, Inc.

  

8-K

  

3.1

  

06/24/2014

  

3.2

  

Amended and Restated Bylaws of Ardelyx, Inc.

  

8-K

  

3.2

  

06/24/2014

  

4.1

  

Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 through 3.2.

  

  

  

  

4.2

  

Form of Common Stock Certificate.

  

S-1/A

  

4.2

  

06/18/2014

  

4.3*

  

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate.

  

  

  

  

4.4

  

Form of Indenture.

  

  

  

  

X

4.5*

  

Form of Note.

  

  

  

  

4.6*

  

Form of Warrant.

  

  

  

  

4.7*

  

Form of Warrant Agreement.

  

  

  

  

4.8*

  

Form of Unit Agreement.

  

  

  

  

5.1

  

Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP.

  

  

  

  

X

23.1

  

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.

  

  

  

  

X

23.2

  

Consent of Latham & Watkins LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).

  

  

  

  

X

24.1

  

Powers of Attorney (incorporated by reference to the signature page hereto).

  

  

  

  

X

25.1‡

  

Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the trustee, as trustee under the indenture filed herewith.

  

  

  

  


*    To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of the securities.

‡    To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Item 601(b)(25) of Regulation S-K.

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Item 17. Undertakings.

(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in the volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

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(6)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(h)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(j)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (the “Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Fremont, California, on July 8, 2020.

Ardelyx, Inc.

By:

/s/ Michael Raab

Name:

Michael Raab

Title:

President and Chief Executive Officer

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Michael Raab and Elizabeth Grammer, or either of them, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to file and sign any and all amendments, including post-effective amendments and any registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective under Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, to this registration statement, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith and about the premises as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or their substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof. This power of attorney shall be governed by and construed with the laws of the State of Delaware and applicable federal securities laws.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

Signature

    

Title

    

Date

/s/ Michael Raab

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
(principal executive officer)

July 8, 2020

Michael Raab

/s/ Justin Renz

Chief Financial Officer
(principal financial and accounting officer)

July 8, 2020

Justin Renz

/s/ David Mott

Chairman of the Board of Directors

July 8, 2020

David Mott

/s/ Geoffrey A. Block

Director

July 8, 2020

Geoffrey A. Block, M.D.

/s/ Robert Bazemore

Director

July 8, 2020

Robert Bazemore

/s/ William Bertrand, Jr.

Director

July 8, 2020

William Bertrand, Jr., J.D.

/s/ Onaiza Cadoret-Manier

Director

July 8, 2020

Onaiza Cadoret-Manier

/s/ Jan M. Lundberg

Director

July 8, 2020

Jan M. Lundberg, Ph.D.

/s/ Gordon Ringold

Director

July 8, 2020

Gordon Ringold, Ph.D.

/s/ Richard Rodgers

Director

July 8, 2020

Richard Rodgers

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Exhibit 1.2

EXECUTION VERSION

OPEN MARKET SALE AGREEMENTSM

July 8, 2020

JEFFERIES LLC
520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Ardelyx, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein, to issue and sell from time to time through Jefferies LLC, as sales agent and/or principal (the “Agent”), shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Shares”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 on the terms set forth in this agreement (this “Agreement”).

Section 1. DEFINITIONS

(a)Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Agreement, capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined shall have the following respective meanings:

Affiliate” of a Person means another Person that directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such first- mentioned Person. The term “control” (including the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”) means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

Agency Period” means the period commencing on the date of this Agreement and expiring on the earliest to occur of (x) the date on which the Agent shall have placed the Maximum Program Amount pursuant to this Agreement and (y) the date this Agreement is terminated pursuant to ‎Section 7.

Commission” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Floor Price” means the minimum price set by the Company in the Issuance Notice below which the Agent shall not sell Shares during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice, which may be adjusted by the Company at any time during the period set forth in the Issuance Notice by delivering written notice of such change to the Agent and which in no event shall be less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion.


SM

“Open Market Sale Agreement” is a service mark of Jefferies LLC


Issuance Amount” means the aggregate Sales Price of the Shares to be sold by the Agent pursuant to any Issuance Notice.

Issuance Notice” means a written notice delivered to the Agent by the Company in accordance with this Agreement in the form attached hereto as Exhibit A that is executed by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer.

Issuance Notice Date” means any Trading Day during the Agency Period that an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to ‎Section 3(b)(i).

Issuance Price” means the Sales Price less the Selling Commission.

Maximum Program Amount” means Common Shares with an aggregate Sales Price of the lesser of (a) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares registered under the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) the number of authorized but unissued Common Shares (less Common Shares issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable), or (d) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares for which the Company has filed a Prospectus (defined below).

Person” means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or other entity of any kind.

Principal Market” means the Nasdaq Global Market or such other national securities exchange on which the Common Shares, including any Shares, are then listed.

Sales Price” means the actual sale execution price of each Share placed by the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Selling Commission” means three percent (3.0%) of the gross proceeds of Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement, or as otherwise agreed between the Company and the Agent with respect to any Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement.

Settlement Date” means the second business day following each Trading Day during the period set forth in the Issuance Notice on which Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement, when the Company shall deliver to the Agent the amount of Shares sold on such Trading Day and the Agent shall deliver to the Company the Issuance Price received on such sales.

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Shares” shall mean the Company’s Common Shares issued or issuable pursuant to this Agreement.

Trading Day” means any day on which the Principal Market is open for trading.

Section 2. REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF THE COMPANY

The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of (1) the date of this Agreement, (2) each Issuance Notice Date, (3) each Settlement Date, (4) each Triggering Event Date and (5) as of each Time of Sale (each of the times referenced above is referred to herein as a “Representation Date”), except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto) on or before a Representation Date, and unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies a different time:

(a)Registration Statement. The Company has prepared and has filed, or will file, with the Commission a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that contains a base prospectus (the “Base Prospectus”). Such registration statement registers the issuance and sale by the Company of the Shares under the Securities Act. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable, with respect to the Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act as from time to time amended or supplemented, is herein referred to as the “Registration Statement,” and the Base Prospectus constituting a part of such registration statement(s), together with any prospectus supplement filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act relating to the Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, including all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, in each case, as from time to time amended or supplemented, is referred to herein as the “Prospectus,” except that if any revised prospectus is provided to the Agent by the Company for use in connection with the offering of the Shares that is not required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, the term “Prospectus” shall refer to such revised prospectus from and after the time it is first provided to the Agent for such use. The Registration Statement at the time it first becomes effective is herein called the “Original Registration Statement.” As used in this Agreement, the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” when applied to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing by the Company with the Commission of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, that is or is deemed to be incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

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All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date; and all references in this Agreement to amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to mean and include, without limitation, the filing of any document under the Exchange Act which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date.

During the Agency Period, each time the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K the Company will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

(b)Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Original Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement (as defined below) will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the date of their first use. The Company has complied or will comply to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, are contemplated or threatened by the Commission.

The Prospectus as of its date complied or will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and, if filed with the Commission through EDGAR (except as may be permitted by Regulation S-T under the Securities Act), was identical to the copy thereof delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective and at all subsequent times, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and, at the time it became or becomes effective and at each Settlement Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. As of the date of this Agreement, the Prospectus and any Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) considered together (collectively, the “Time of Sale Information”) did not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, at each Settlement Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the three immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information described in ‎Section 6 below. There are no contracts

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or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said rule.

(c)Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, do not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(d)Stock Exchange Listing. The Common Shares are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act and are listed on the Principal Market, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Shares under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Shares from the Principal Market, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Principal Market is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Principal Market.

(e)Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and any documents incorporated by reference therein, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.

(f)Financial Information. The financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, together with the related notes and schedules, present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of the dates indicated and the results of operations, cash flows and changes in stockholders’ equity of the Company for the periods specified (subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal and recurring year-end audit adjustments) and have been prepared in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act, as applicable, and in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis (except for such adjustments to accounting standards and practices as are noted therein) during the periods involved (except that any interim statements are in condensed form and do not contain all footnotes that would be required under GAAP and are subject to year-end audit adjustments); the other financial and statistical data with respect to the Company contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, are accurately and fairly presented in all material respects and prepared on a basis consistent, in all material respects, with the financial statements (in the case of financial data only) and books and records of the Company; there are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not included or incorporated by reference as required; the Company does not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or

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contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), that are required to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that are not described in the Registration Statement (excluding the exhibits thereto) and the Prospectus; and all disclosures contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply in all material respects with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(g)Conformity with EDGAR Filing. The Prospectus delivered to Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T under the Securities Act.

(h)Organization. The Company is duly incorporated, validly existing as a corporation and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of incorporation. The Company is duly licensed or qualified as a foreign corporation for the transaction of business and in good standing under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which its ownership or lease of property or the conduct of its business requires such license or qualification, and has all corporate power and authority necessary to own or hold its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect or would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the assets, business, operations, earnings, properties, condition (financial or otherwise), prospects, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company, or prevent or materially interfere with consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

(i)Subsidiaries. The Company has no subsidiaries (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act).

(j)No Violation or Default. The Company is not (i) in violation of its certificate of incorporation or bylaws; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company are subject (an “Existing Instrument”); or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any Governmental Authority, except, in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the issuance and sale of the Shares (including the use of proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) (i) have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and

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will not result in any violation of the provisions of the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the Company (ii) will not conflict with or constitute a breach of, or default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to, or require the consent of any other party to, any Existing Instrument, except as could not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect and (iii) will not result in any violation of any law, administrative regulation or administrative or court decree applicable to the Company, except as could not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. As used herein, a “Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition which gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give, the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company.

(k)No Material Adverse Change. Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any (including any documents incorporated by reference therein), there has not been (i) any Material Adverse Effect or the occurrence of any development that the Company reasonably expects will result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) any transaction which is material to the Company, (iii) any material obligation or liability, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), incurred by the Company, (iv) any material change in the capital stock or any material increase in the outstanding long-term indebtedness of the Company (other than (a) as a result of the sale of Shares, or (b) changes in the number of shares of outstanding Common Stock of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, shares of Common Stock outstanding on the date hereof, or the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding on the date hereof) or (v) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made on the capital stock of the Company, other than in each case above in the ordinary course of business or as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including any document deemed incorporated by reference therein).

(l)Capitalization. The issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and, other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. The Company has an authorized, issued and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as of the dates referred to therein (other than the grant of additional options or other securities under the Company’s existing employee benefits plans, or changes in the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, Common Stock outstanding on the date hereof, or due to the issuance of shares in connection with Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan) and such authorized capital stock conforms to the description thereof set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The description of the securities of the Company in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is complete and accurate in all material respects. Except as disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as of the date referred to therein, the Company does not have outstanding any options to purchase, or any rights or warrants to subscribe for, or any securities or obligations convertible

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into, or exchangeable for, or any contracts or commitments to issue or sell, any shares of capital stock or other securities.

(m)Authorization; Enforceability. The Company has full legal right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and perform the transactions contemplated hereby. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and that the enforceability of the indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by federal and state securities laws and principles of public policy.

(n)Authorization of Shares. The Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized Executive Committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim (other than any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim arising from an act or omission of the Agent or a purchaser), including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Shares, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The Shares, when issued, will conform in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in or incorporated into the Prospectus.

(o)No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any Governmental Authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale by the Company of the Shares, except for the registration of the Shares under the Securities Act and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required under applicable state securities laws or by the by-laws and rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or the Exchange in connection with the sale of the Shares by the Agent.

(p)No Preferential Rights. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company (other than upon the exercise of options or warrants to purchase Common Stock or upon the exercise of options or other securities that may be granted from time to time under the Company’s equity incentive plans and which are disclosed in the Registration Statement and Prospectus), (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal, rights of co-sale, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (iii) no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Shares, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the

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Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise, except for such rights as have been waived in writing on or prior to the date hereof.

(q)Independent Public Accounting Firm. Ernst & Young LLP, whose report on the financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is, and during the periods covered by Ernst & Young LLP’s report was, an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (the “PCAOB”). To the Company’s knowledge, Ernst & Young LLP is not in violation of the auditor independence requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) with respect to the Company.

(r)No Litigation. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits, or proceedings pending, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any legal, governmental or regulatory audits or investigations, to which the Company is a party or of which any property of the Company is the subject that, if determined adversely to the Company, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such actions, suits or proceedings are threatened by any Governmental Authority or threatened by others that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (i) there are no pending legal, governmental or regulatory audits, actions, suits or proceedings, or, to the Company’s knowledge, investigations, that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Prospectus that are not so described; and (ii) there are no contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not so filed.

(s)Permits. The Company possesses all licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by all applicable authorities necessary to conduct its business, and the Company has not received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a Material Adverse Effect, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(t)Regulatory Filings. Except as described in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, and as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect: (i) the Company is and has been in compliance with statutes, laws, ordinances, rules and regulations applicable to the Company for the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, labeling, storage, or disposal of any product manufactured by or on behalf of the Company (a “Company Product”), including without limitation, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §301, et seq., the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §262, similar laws of other governmental entities and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws (collectively, “Applicable Laws”); (ii) the Company possesses all licenses, certificates, approvals, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws and/or for the ownership of its properties or the conduct of its business as it relates to a Company Product and as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively,

9


Authorizations”) and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and the Company is not in violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (iii) the Company has not received any written notice of adverse finding, warning letter or other written correspondence or notice from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or any other governmental entity alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or Authorizations relating to a Company Product; (iv) the Company has not received written notice of any ongoing claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any governmental entity or third party alleging that any Company Product, operation or activity related to a Company Product is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations or has any knowledge that any such governmental entity or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding, nor, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, has there been any noncompliance with or violation of any Applicable Laws by the Company that could reasonably be expected to require the issuance of any such written notice or result in an investigation, corrective action, or enforcement action by FDA or similar governmental entity with respect to a Company Product; (v) the Company has not received written notice that any governmental entity has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Authorizations or has any knowledge that any such governmental entity has threatened or is considering such action with respect to a Company Product; and (vi) the Company has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete, correct and not misleading on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission). To the Company’s knowledge, neither the Company nor any of its directors, officers, employees or agents, has made, or caused the making of, any false statements on, or material omissions from, any other records or documentation prepared or maintained to comply with the requirements of the FDA or any other governmental entity.

(u)Intellectual Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, the Company owns, possesses, licenses or has other rights to use all foreign and domestic patents, patent applications, trade and service marks, trade and service mark registrations, trade names, copyrights, inventions, trade secrets, technology, Internet domain names, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”), necessary for the conduct of its business as now conducted except to the extent that the failure to own, possess, license or otherwise hold adequate rights to use such Intellectual Property would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as described in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, and except in each of (i) through (vii) below, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect: (i) to the Company’s knowledge, there are no rights of third parties to any such Intellectual Property owned by the Company, except for rights granted to independent contractors of the Company or to academic or other research institutions under research agreements; (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property; (iii) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s rights in or to any such Intellectual Property; (iv) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any issued patent included in such Intellectual Property; (v) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or

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claim by others that the Company infringes or otherwise violates any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others; (vi) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no U.S. patent or published U.S. patent application owned by a third-party which contains claims for which an Interference Proceeding (as defined in 35 U.S.C. §135) has been commenced against any patent or patent application described in the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company; and (vii) the Company has not failed to comply with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company, and all such agreements are in full force and effect.

(v)Cybersecurity. The Company’s information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, internet web sites, data and databases (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with, the operation of the business of the Company as currently conducted, except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its former subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable information technology, information security, cyber security and data protection controls, policies and procedures, including to protect and prevent security breaches of, unauthorized access to and other compromises of IT Systems and Data. The Company has no knowledge of, and is not currently investigating, any cyber attack, security breach, unauthorized access or other compromise to its IT Systems and Data, which attack, breach, unauthorized access or compromise could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company is presently, and at all prior times the Company and its former subsidiaries were, in compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and, to the knowledge of the Company, all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations to which the Company is and its former subsidiaries were subject relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect on the Company.

(w)Compliance with Data Privacy Laws. Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, (A) the Company is, and at all prior times the Company and its former subsidiaries were, in compliance with all applicable state and federal data privacy and security laws and regulations, including without limitation HIPAA, and (B) the Company has taken commercially reasonable actions to prepare to comply with, and since May 25, 2018, has been and currently is in compliance with, to the extent applicable, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, the “Privacy Laws”). Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company has in place, complies with, and takes appropriate steps reasonably designed to ensure compliance with its policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling, and analysis of Personal Data (each, a “Policy”). Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its former subsidiaries have at all times made all disclosures to users or customers required by applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and none of such disclosures made or contained in any Policy have, to the knowledge of the Company, been inaccurate or in violation

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of any applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements. The Company further certifies that neither it nor any former subsidiary: (i) has received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; or (iii) is a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.

(x)Clinical Studies. The clinical studies and tests conducted by the Company, or to the knowledge of the Company or on behalf of the Company, have been and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects pursuant to all Applicable Laws and Authorizations; the descriptions of the results of such clinical studies and tests contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such clinical studies and tests; except to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company is not aware of any clinical studies or tests, the results of which the Company believes reasonably call into question the research, nonclinical or clinical study or test results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus when viewed in the context in which such results are described; and the Company has not received any written notices or correspondence from any governmental entity requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any clinical study or test conducted by or on behalf of the Company.

(y)Market Capitalization. At the time the Original Registration Statement is declared effective, and at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3. The Company satisfies the pre-1992 eligibility requirements for the use of a registration statement on Form S-3 in connection with this offering. The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company.

(z)No Material Defaults. The Company has not defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not filed a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the filing of its last Annual Report on Form 10-K indicating that it (i) has failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect.

(aa)Certain Market Activities. Neither the Company, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed, or that has constituted or might reasonably be expected to cause

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or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares.

(bb)Broker/Dealer Relationships. The Company (i) is not required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act and (ii) is not, and does not directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).

(cc)No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon the Agent or legal counsel for the Agent for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

(dd)Taxes. The Company has filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns which have been required to be filed and paid all taxes shown thereon through the date hereof, to the extent that such taxes have become due and are not being contested in good faith, except where the failure to so file or pay would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as otherwise disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company which has had, or would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has no knowledge of any federal, state or other governmental tax deficiency, penalty or assessment which has been asserted or threatened against it which would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(ee)Title to Real and Personal Property. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company has good and valid title to all personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being owned by it that are material to the businesses of the Company, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and claims, except those matters that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company does not own any real property. Any real or personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being leased by the Company is held by it under valid, existing and enforceable leases, except those that (A) do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such property by the Company or (B) would not be reasonably expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the Company’s knowledge, each of the properties of the Company complies in all material respects with all applicable codes, laws and regulations (including, without limitation, building and zoning codes, laws and regulations and laws relating to access to such properties), except if and to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or except for such failures to comply that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or otherwise have a Material Adverse Effect.

(ff)Environmental Laws. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company (i) is in compliance in all material respects with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, decisions and orders relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) has received and is in

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compliance in all material respects with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iii) has not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company has not been named as a “potentially responsible party” under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended.

(gg)Periodic Review of Costs of Environmental Compliance.  The Company has reasonably concluded that costs and liabilities associated with the effect of Environmental Laws on the business, operations and properties of the Company (including, without limitation, any capital or operating expenditures required for clean-up, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws, or any permit, license or approval, any related constraints on operating activities and any potential liabilities to third parties)would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(hh)Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. As of the end of the Company’s most recently completed fiscal year, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective and the Company was not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Prospectus). Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, since the date of the latest audited financial statements of the Company included in the Prospectus, there have been no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and, to the Company’s knowledge, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially and adversely affected, or is reasonably likely to materially and adversely affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to the certifying officers by others within the Company, particularly during the period in which the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as the case may be, is being prepared. To the extent required by law, the Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of a date within 90 days prior to the filing date of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and

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procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date and the disclosure controls and procedures are effective in all material respects for which they were established. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no significant adverse changes in the Company’s internal controls (as such term is defined in Item 307(b) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act) or, to the Company’s knowledge, in other factors that would significantly and adversely affect the Company’s internal controls.

(ii)Sarbanes-Oxley. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Each of the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer of the Company (or each former principal executive officer of the Company and each former principal financial officer of the Company as applicable) has made the certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it or furnished by it to the Commission. For purposes of the preceding sentence, “principal executive officer” and “principal financial officer” shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(jj)Finder’s Fees. The Company has not incurred any liability for any finder’s fees, brokerage commissions or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated, except as may otherwise exist with respect to Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

(kk)Labor Disputes. No labor dispute with employees of the Company exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(ll)Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares will not be, an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company,” as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

(mm)Operations. The operations of the Company are and have been conducted at all times in compliance in all material respects with applicable financial record keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions to which the Company is subject, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Authority (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any Governmental Authority involving the Company with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(nn)Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. There are no transactions, arrangements and other relationships between and/or among the Company and/or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its affiliates and any unconsolidated entity, including, but not limited to, any structural finance, special purpose or limited purpose entity (each, an “Off-Balance Sheet Transaction”)

15


that could reasonably be expected to affect materially the Company’s liquidity or the availability of or requirements for its capital resources, including those Off-Balance Sheet Transactions described in the Commission’s Statement about Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (Release Nos. 33-8056; 34-45321; FR-61), required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

(oo)Underwriter Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at-the-market” or continuous equity transaction.

(pp)ERISA. To the knowledge of the Company, each material employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), that is maintained, administered or contributed to by the Company or any of its affiliates for employees or former employees of the Company has been maintained in material compliance with the terms and requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations under ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred which would result in a material liability to the Company with respect to any such plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; and for each such plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no “accumulated funding deficiency” as defined in Section 431 of the Code has been incurred, whether or not waived, and the fair market value of the assets of each such plan (excluding for these purposes accrued but unpaid contributions) exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such plan determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions.

(qq)Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) (a “Forward-Looking Statement”) contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (other than by incorporation by reference) has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

(rr)Agent Purchases. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the rules of the Exchange, purchase and sell Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Agent may engage in sales of Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent.

(ss)Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

(tt)Insurance. The Company is insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are reasonable and customary in the business in which it is engaged; the Company is in compliance with the terms of the

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insurance policies and instruments insuring the Company or its businesses, assets, employees, officers and directors in all material respects, and such policies and instruments are in full force and effect; there are no claims by the Company under any such policy or instrument as to which any insurance company is denying liability or defending under a reservation of rights clause; except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company has not, within the past five years, been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and the Company has no reasonable basis to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would have a Material Adverse Effect, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(uu)No Improper Practices. (i) Neither the Company, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any of its executive officers has, in the past five years, made any unlawful contributions to any candidate for any political office (or failed fully to disclose any contribution in violation of law) or made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state, municipal, or foreign office or other person charged with similar public or quasi-public duty in violation of any law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus; (ii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its affiliates, on the one hand, and the directors, officers and stockholders of the Company, on the other hand, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any affiliate of the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, or stockholders of the Company, on the other hand, that is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iv) except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no material outstanding loans or advances or material guarantees of indebtedness by the Company to or for the benefit of any of its officers or directors or any of the members of the families of any of them; (v) the Company has not offered, or directed any placement agent to offer, Common Stock to any person with the intent to influence unlawfully (A) a customer or supplier of the Company to alter the customer’s or supplier’s level or type of business with the Company or (B) a trade journalist or publication to write or publish favorable information about the Company or any of its products or services; and (vi) neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee or agent of the Company, has made any payment of funds of the Company or received or retained any funds in violation of any law, rule or regulation (including, without limitation, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”)), which payment, receipt or retention of funds is of a character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus. The Company has conducted its business in compliance with the FCPA and has instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(vv)Status Under the Securities Act. The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Shares.

(ww)No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Representation Date, did not, does not

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and will not, through the completion of the Placement for which such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus is used, include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any documents incorporated by reference therein deemed to be a part thereof, that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use therein.

(xx)No Conflicts. Neither the execution of this Agreement by the Company, nor the issuance, offering or sale of the Shares by the Company, nor the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated herein and therein by the Company, nor the compliance by the Company with the terms and provisions hereof and thereof will conflict with, or will result in a breach of, any of the terms and provisions of, or has constituted or will constitute a default under, or has resulted in or will result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to the terms of any contract or other agreement to which the Company is a party or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject, except (i) such conflicts, breaches or defaults as may have been waived and (ii) such conflicts, breaches and defaults that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; nor will such action result (x) in any violation of the provisions of the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the Company, or (y) in any violation of the provisions of any statute or any order, rule or regulation applicable to the Company or of any Governmental Authority having jurisdiction over the Company, except, with respect to this clause (y) only, for any violation that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(yy)Sanctions. (i) The Company represents that, neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Company, is a government, individual, or entity (in this paragraph (tt), “Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by, a Person that is:

(a)the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (as amended, collectively, “Sanctions”), nor

(b)located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including, without limitation, Burma/Myanmar, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan and Syria).

(ii)The Company represents and covenants that it will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:

(a)to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or

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(B) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

(iii)The Company represents and covenants that, except as detailed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, for the past five (5) years, it has not knowingly engaged in, is not now knowingly engaged in, and will not knowingly engage in, any dealings or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

(zz)No Rated Security. There are no debt securities or preferred stock of, or guaranteed by, the Company that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization,” as such term is defined by the Commission for the purposes of Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

(aaa)Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid by the Company in connection with the sale and transfer of the Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been complied with in all material respects.

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or counsel for the Agent in connection with an issuance of Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Agent as to the matters covered thereby on the date of such certificate.

The Company acknowledges that the Agent and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to ‎Section 4(p) and ‎Section 5(a)(v) hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to the Agent, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

Section 3. ISSUANCE AND SALE OF COMMON SHARES

(a)Sale of Securities. On the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements herein contained, but subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company may from time to time seek to sell Shares through the Agent, acting as sales agent, or directly to the Agent, acting as principal, as follows, with an aggregate Sales Price of up to the Maximum Program Amount, based on and in accordance with Issuance Notices as the Company may deliver, during the Agency Period.

(b)Mechanics of Issuances.

(i) Issuance Notice. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, on any Trading Day during the Agency Period on which the conditions set forth in ‎Section 5(a) and ‎Section 5(b) shall have been satisfied, the Company may exercise its right to request an issuance of Shares by delivering to the Agent an Issuance Notice; provided, however, that (A) in no event may the Company deliver an Issuance Notice to the extent that (I) the sum of (x) the aggregate Sales Price of the requested Issuance Amount, plus (y) the aggregate Sales Price of all Shares issued under all previous Issuance Notices effected pursuant to this Agreement, would exceed the

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Maximum Program Amount; and (B) prior to delivery of any Issuance Notice, the period set forth for any previous Issuance Notice shall have expired or been terminated. An Issuance Notice shall be considered delivered on the Trading Day that it is received by e-mail to the persons set forth in Schedule A hereto and confirmed by the Company by telephone (including a voicemail message to the persons so identified), with the understanding that, with adequate prior written notice, the Agent may modify the list of such persons from time to time.

(ii)Agent Efforts. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement, upon the receipt of an Issuance Notice, the Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal sales and trading practices to place the Shares with respect to which the Agent has agreed to act as sales agent, subject to, and in accordance with the information specified in, the Issuance Notice, unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been suspended, cancelled or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. For the avoidance of doubt, the parties to this Agreement may modify an Issuance Notice at any time provided they both agree in writing to any such modification.

(iii)Method of Offer and Sale. The Shares may be offered and sold (A) in privately negotiated transactions with the consent of the Company; (B) as block transactions; or (C) by any other method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Principal Market or sales made into any other existing trading market of the Common Shares. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to require either party to agree to the method of offer and sale specified in the preceding sentence, and (except as specified in clauses (A) and (B) above) the method of placement of any Shares by the Agent shall be at the Agent’s discretion.

(iv)Confirmation to the Company. If acting as sales agent hereunder, the Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day next following the Trading Day on which it has placed Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Shares sold on such Trading Day, the corresponding Sales Price and the Issuance Price payable to the Company in respect thereof.

(v)Settlement. Each issuance of Shares will be settled on the applicable Settlement Date for such issuance of Shares and, subject to the provisions of ‎Section 5, on or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting the Agent or its designee’s account at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit/Withdrawal At Custodian (DWAC) System, or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto and, upon receipt of such Shares, which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form, the Agent will deliver, by wire transfer of immediately available funds, the related Issuance Price in same day funds delivered to an account designated by the Company prior to the Settlement Date. The Company may sell Shares to the Agent as principal at a price agreed upon at each relevant time Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement (each, a “Time of Sale”).

(vi)Suspension or Termination of Sales. Consistent with standard market settlement practices, the Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party hereto in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party whose names are set forth on Schedule A) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable email), suspend

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any sale of Shares, and the period set forth in an Issuance Notice shall immediately terminate; provided, however, that (A) such suspension and termination shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares placed or sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice; (B) if the Company suspends or terminates any sale of Shares after the Agent confirms such sale to the Company, the Company shall still be obligated to comply with ‎Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares; and (C) if the Company defaults in its obligation to deliver Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that it will hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage or expense (including, without limitation, penalties, interest and reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company. The parties hereto acknowledge and agree that, in performing its obligations under this Agreement, the Agent may borrow Common Shares from stock lenders in the event that the Company has not delivered Shares to settle sales as required by subsection (v) above, and may use the Shares to settle or close out such borrowings. The Company agrees that no such notice shall be effective against the Agent unless it is made to the persons identified in writing by the Agent pursuant to ‎Section 3(b)(i).

(vii)No Guarantee of Placement, Etc. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in placing Shares; (B) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other Person if it does not sell Shares; and (C) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Agent and the Company.

(viii)Material Non-Public Information. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company shall not deliver any Issuance Notice to the Agent, and the Agent shall not be obligated to place any Shares, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information.

(c)Fees. As compensation for services rendered, the Company shall pay to the Agent, on the applicable Settlement Date, the Selling Commission for the applicable Issuance Amount (including with respect to any suspended or terminated sale pursuant to Section 3(b)(vi)) by the Agent deducting the Selling Commission from the applicable Issuance Amount.

(d)Expenses. The Company agrees to pay all costs, fees and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of its obligations hereunder and in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation (i) all expenses incident to the issuance and delivery of the Shares (including all printing and engraving costs); (ii) all fees and expenses of the registrar and transfer agent of the Shares; (iii) all necessary issue, transfer and other stamp taxes in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares; (iv) all fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel, independent public or certified public accountants and other advisors; (v) all costs and expenses incurred in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, shipping and distribution of the Registration Statement (including financial statements, exhibits, schedules, consents and certificates of experts), the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company, and all amendments and supplements thereto, and this Agreement; (vi) all filing fees, attorneys’ fees and expenses incurred by the Company or the Agent in connection with qualifying or registering (or obtaining exemptions from the qualification or registration of) all or any part of the Shares for offer and sale under the state securities or blue sky laws or the provincial securities laws of Canada, and, if

21


requested by the Agent, preparing and printing a “Blue Sky Survey” or memorandum and a “Canadian wrapper,” and any supplements thereto, and advising the Agent of such qualifications, registrations, determinations and exemptions; (vii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s counsel, including the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Agent in connection with, FINRA review, if any, and approval of the Agent’s participation in the offering and distribution of the Shares; (viii) the filing fees incident to FINRA review, if any; and (ix) the fees and expenses associated with listing the Shares on the Principal Market. The fees and disbursements of Agent’s counsel pursuant to subsections (vi) and (vii) above shall not exceed (A) $50,000 in connection with the execution of this Agreement and (B) $15,000 in connection with each Triggering Event Date (as defined below) on which the Company is required to provide a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o).

Section 4. ADDITIONAL COVENANTS

The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent as follows, in addition to any other covenants and agreements made elsewhere in this Agreement:

(a)Exchange Act Compliance. During the Agency Period, the Company shall (i) file, on a timely basis, with the Commission all reports and documents required to be filed under Section 13, 14 or 15 of the Exchange Act in the manner and within the time periods required by the Exchange Act; and (ii) either, in the Company’s sole discretion, (A) include in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and its annual reports on Form 10-K, a summary detailing, for the relevant reporting period, (1) the number of Shares, if any, sold through the Agent pursuant to this Agreement and (2) the net proceeds, if any, received by the Company from such sales or (B) prepare a prospectus supplement containing, or include in such other filing permitted by the Securities Act or Exchange Act (each an “Interim Prospectus Supplement”), such summary information and, at least once a quarter and subject to this Section 4, file such Interim Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (and within the time periods required by Rule 424(b) and Rule 430B under the Securities Act).

(b)Securities Act Compliance. After the date of this Agreement, the Company shall promptly advise the Agent in writing (i) of the receipt of any comments of, or requests for additional or supplemental information from, the Commission; (ii) of the time and date of any filing of any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, or any Free Writing Prospectus; (iii) of the time and date that any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement becomes effective; and (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus or of any order preventing or suspending the use of any Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus, or of any proceedings to remove, suspend or terminate from listing or quotation the Common Shares from any securities exchange upon which they are listed for trading or included or designated for quotation, or of the threatening or initiation of any proceedings for any of such purposes. If the Commission shall enter any such stop order at any time, the Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain the lifting of such order as soon as practicable. Additionally, the Company agrees that it shall comply with the provisions of Rule 424(b) and Rule 433, as applicable, under the Securities Act and will use its reasonable efforts to confirm that any

22


filings made by the Company under such Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 were received in a timely manner by the Commission.

(c)Amendments and Supplements to the Prospectus and Other Securities Act Matters. If any event shall occur or condition exist as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus so that the Prospectus does not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading, or if in the opinion of the Agent or counsel for the Agent it is otherwise necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus to comply with applicable law, including the Securities Act, the Company agrees (subject to Sections 4(d) and 4(f)) to promptly prepare, file with the Commission and furnish at its own expense to the Agent, amendments or supplements to the Prospectus so that the statements in the Prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, be misleading or so that the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, will comply with applicable law including the Securities Act. Neither the Agent’s consent to, or delivery of, any such amendment or supplement shall constitute a waiver of any of the Company’s obligations under Sections 4(d) and 4(f); provided, however that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (other than the Agent’s rights under Section 3(d) or Section 6 hereof) shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed; provided further, that the failure of the Company to file such amendment or supplement request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability under Section 3(d) or Section 6 hereof, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to file such amendment or supplement if there is no pending Issuance Notice and the Company believes that it is in its best interest not to file such amendment or supplement.

(d)Agent’s Review of Proposed Amendments and Supplements. Prior to filing any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement (including any registration statement filed under Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act (a “Rule 462(b) Registration Statement”) or the Prospectus (excluding any amendment or supplement through incorporation of any report filed under the Exchange Act), insofar as such proposed amendment or supplement relates to the Shares , the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each such proposed amendment or supplement, and the Company shall not file or use any such proposed amendment or supplement without the Agent’s prior consent, and the Company shall file with the Commission within the applicable period specified in Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act any prospectus required to be filed pursuant to such Rule.

(e)Use of Free Writing Prospectus. Neither the Company nor the Agent has prepared, used, referred to or distributed, or will prepare, use, refer to or distribute, without the other party’s prior written consent, any “written communication” that constitutes a “free writing prospectus” as such terms are defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act with respect to the offering contemplated by this Agreement (any such free writing prospectus being referred to herein as a “Free Writing Prospectus”).

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(f)Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto to be prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company, insofar as such proposed free writing prospectus or amendment or supplement relates to the Shares, and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any proposed free writing prospectus relating to the Shares or any amendment or supplement thereto without the Agent’s consent. The Company shall furnish to the Agent, without charge, as many copies of any free writing prospectus relating to the Shares prepared by or on behalf of, or used by the Company, as the Agent may reasonably request. If at any time when a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares (but in any event if at any time through and including the date of this Agreement) there occurred or occurs an event or development as a result of which any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company conflicted or would conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or included or would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or would omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading, the Company shall promptly amend or supplement such free writing prospectus to eliminate or correct such conflict or so that the statements in such free writing prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at such subsequent time, not misleading, as the case may be; provided, however, that prior to amending or supplementing any such free writing prospectus relating to the Shares, the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of such proposed amended or supplemented free writing prospectus and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any such amended or supplemented free writing prospectus without the Agent’s consent.

(g)Filing of Agent Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall not take any action that would result in the Agent or the Company being required to file with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act a free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of the Agent that the Agent otherwise would not have been required to file thereunder.

(h)Copies of Registration Statement and Prospectus. After the date of this Agreement through the last time that a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares, the Company agrees to furnish the Agent with copies (which may be electronic copies) of the Registration Statement and each amendment thereto, and with copies of the Prospectus and each amendment or supplement thereto in the form in which it is filed with the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act or Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, both in such quantities as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time; and, if the delivery of a prospectus is required under the Securities Act or under the blue sky or securities laws of any jurisdiction at any time on or prior to the applicable Settlement Date for any period set forth in an Issuance Notice in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares and if at such time any event has occurred as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made when such Prospectus is delivered,

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not misleading, or, if for any other reason it is necessary during such same period to amend or supplement the Prospectus or to file under the Exchange Act any document incorporated by reference in the Prospectus in order to comply with the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, to notify the Agent and to request that the Agent suspend offers to sell Shares (and, if so notified, the Agent shall cease such offers as soon as practicable); and if the Company decides to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented, to advise the Agent promptly by telephone (with confirmation in writing) and to prepare and cause to be filed promptly with the Commission an amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented that will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that if during such same period the Agent is required to deliver a prospectus in respect of transactions in the Shares, the Company shall promptly prepare and file with the Commission such an amendment or supplement.

(i)Blue Sky Compliance. The Company shall cooperate with the Agent and counsel for the Agent to qualify or register the Shares for sale under (or obtain exemptions from the application of) the state securities or blue sky laws or Canadian provincial securities laws of those jurisdictions designated by the Agent, shall comply with such laws and shall continue such qualifications, registrations and exemptions in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares. The Company shall not be required to qualify as a foreign corporation or to take any action that would subject it to general service of process in any such jurisdiction where it is not presently qualified or where it would be subject to taxation as a foreign corporation. The Company will advise the Agent promptly of the suspension of the qualification or registration of (or any such exemption relating to) the Shares for offering, sale or trading in any jurisdiction or any initiation or threat of any proceeding for any such purpose, and in the event of the issuance of any order suspending such qualification, registration or exemption, the Company shall use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain the withdrawal thereof as soon as practicable.

(j)Earnings Statement. As soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter as of the date of this Agreement, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent an earnings statement (which need not be audited) covering a period of at least twelve months beginning with the first fiscal quarter of the Company occurring after the date of this Agreement which shall satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

(k)Listing; Reservation of Shares. (a) The Company will maintain the listing of the Shares on the Principal Market; and (b) the Company will reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, Shares for the purpose of enabling the Company to satisfy its obligations under this Agreement.1

(l)Transfer Agent. The Company shall engage and maintain, at its expense, a registrar and transfer agent for the Shares.

(m)Due Diligence.  During the term of this Agreement, the Company will reasonably cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during normal business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time.


1

Note to Latham: Please send a copy of any filings required by Nasdaq in connection with the transaction.

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(n)Representations and Warranties. The Company acknowledges that each delivery of an Issuance Notice and each delivery of Shares on a Settlement Date shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation to the Agent that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such Issuance Notice or of such Settlement Date, as the case may be, as though made at and as of each such date, except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto); and (ii) an undertaking that the Company will advise the Agent if any of such representations and warranties will not be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such Issuance Notice, as though made at and as of each such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(o)Deliverables at Triggering Event Dates; Certificates. The Company agrees that on or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and, during the term of this Agreement after the date of the first Issuance Notice, upon:

(A)the filing of the Prospectus or the amendment or supplement of any Registration Statement or Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Shares or a prospectus filed pursuant to Section 4(a)(ii)(B)), by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement, but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus;

(B)the filing with the Commission of an annual report on Form 10-K or a quarterly report on Form 10-Q (including any Form 10-K/A or Form 10-Q/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q), in each case, of the Company; or

(C)the filing with the Commission of a current report on Form 8-K of the Company containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) that is material to the offering of securities of the Company in the Agent’s reasonable discretion;

(any such event described in clauses (A) through (C) above, a “Triggering Event Date”), the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (C) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such current report on Form 8-K of the Company is material) with a certificate as of the Triggering Event Date, substantially in the form attached hereto as Exhibit B, executed by the Company’s principal executive officer or principal financial officer. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 4(o) shall be automatically waived for any Triggering Event Date occurring at a time when no Issuance Notice is pending or a suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter

26


shall be considered a Triggering Event Date) and the next occurring Triggering Event Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Triggering Event Date when a suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 4(o), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Shares or the Agent sells any Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 4(o) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Shares are issued.

(p)Legal Opinions. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on or prior to each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent (1) a negative assurances letter and the written legal opinion of Latham & Watkins, LLP, counsel to the Company (“Company Counsel”), and (2) the written legal opinion of Viksnins Harris Padys Malen LLP, intellectual property counsel to the Company, or other intellectual property counsel to the Company reasonably satisfactory to the Agent (collectively, “IP Counsel”), each dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that the Company shall be required to furnish no more than one written legal opinion and negative assurance letter of Company Counsel per filing of an annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q; and provided further that the Company shall be required to furnish no more than one written legal opinion of IP Counsel hereunder in any twelve-month period. In lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings, in the discretion of the Agent, the Company may furnish a reliance letter from such counsel to the Agent, permitting the Agent to rely on a previously delivered opinion letter and negative assurances letter, modified as appropriate for any passage of time or Triggering Event Date (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of such Triggering Event Date).

(q)Comfort Letter. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on or prior to each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause Ernst & Young LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm who has audited the financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, to furnish the Agent a comfort letter, dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel; provided, however, that any such comfort letter will only be required on the Triggering Event Date specified to the extent that it contains financial statements filed with the Commission under the Exchange Act and incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into a Prospectus. If requested by the Agent, the Company shall also cause a comfort letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event requiring the filing of a current report on Form 8-K containing material amended financial information of the Company, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Company shall be required to furnish no more than one comfort letter hereunder per calendar quarter.

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(r)  Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on or prior to each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall furnish the Agent a certificate executed by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company, signing in such capacity, dated the date of delivery substantially in the form attached as Exhibit C hereto, along with such certificates of good standing or other certificates of public officials as may be reasonably requested by Company Counsel or Agent Counsel (as defined below) in connection with the rendering of their opinions and negative assurance letters as contemplated by Section 4(p) and Section 5(a)(v).

(s)Agent’s Own Account; Clients’ Account. The Company consents to the Agent trading, in compliance with applicable law, in the Common Shares for the Agent’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement.

(t)Investment Limitation. The Company shall not invest, or otherwise use the proceeds received by the Company from its sale of the Shares in such a manner as would require the Company to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

(u)Market Activities. The Company will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares or any other reference security, whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with all applicable provisions of Regulation M. If the limitations of Rule 102 of Regulation M (“Rule 102”) do not apply with respect to the Shares or any other reference security pursuant to any exception set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102, then promptly upon notice from the Agent (or, if later, at the time stated in the notice), the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with Rule 102 as though such exception were not available but the other provisions of Rule 102 (as interpreted by the Commission) did apply. The Company shall promptly notify the Agent if it no longer meets the requirements set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102.

(v)Notice of Other Sale. Without the written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares (other than Shares hereunder), warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares, during the period beginning on the third Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Issuance Notice is delivered to the Agent hereunder and ending on the earlier of (x) the third Trading Day immediately following the Settlement Date with respect to Shares sold pursuant to such Issuance Notice and (y) the date the Company notifies the Agent of the withdrawal of such Issuance Notice; and will not directly or indirectly enter into any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer pursuant to which the Company (including through another person as agent or principal) offers to sell, sells, contracts to sell, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any Common Shares (other than the Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Shares prior to the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s (i) issuance or sale of Common Shares, options to purchase Common Shares or Common Shares issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any employee, consultant or director share option, incentive or benefit plan, share purchase or ownership plan, long-term incentive plan, dividend reinvestment plan, inducement award under

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Nasdaq rules or other compensation plan of the Company or its subsidiaries, whether now in effect on the date of this Agreement or hereafter implemented, (ii) issuance or sale of Common Shares issuable upon exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other equity awards disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent, (iii) modification of any outstanding options, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares, and (iv) Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations, collaboration agreements or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued primarily for capital raising purposes; provided, however, that if any Issuance Notice is pending, the Company will not issue Common Shares pursuant to clause (iv) of this Section 4(v) while such Issuance Notice is pending if, following such issuance, the number of Common Shares issued or issuable in connection with all such issuances pursuant to clause (iv) would exceed 5% of the aggregate number of the Common Shares outstanding as of the date of this Agreement.

Section 5. CONDITIONS TO DELIVERY OF ISSUANCE NOTICES AND TO SETTLEMENT

(a)Conditions Precedent to the Right of the Company to Deliver an Issuance Notice and the Obligation of the Agent to Sell Shares. The right of the Company to deliver an Issuance Notice hereunder is subject to the satisfaction, on the date of delivery of such Issuance Notice, and the obligation of the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice is subject to the satisfaction, on each Trading Day during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice, of each of the following conditions:

(i)

Accuracy of the Company’s Representations and Warranties; Performance by the Company. The Company shall have delivered the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 4(o). The Company shall have performed, satisfied and complied with all covenants, agreements and conditions required by this Agreement to be performed, satisfied or complied with by the Company at or prior to such date, including, but not limited to, the covenants contained in ‎Section 4(p), Section 4(q) and Section 4(r).

(ii)

No Injunction. No statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, ruling or injunction shall have been enacted, entered, promulgated or endorsed by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction or any self-regulatory organization having authority over the matters contemplated hereby that prohibits or directly and materially adversely affects any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, and no proceeding shall have been commenced that may have the effect of prohibiting or materially adversely affecting any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(iii)

Material Adverse Effects. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus and the Time of Sale Information, (a) in the judgment of the Agent there shall not have occurred any Material Adverse Effect; and (b) there shall not have occurred any downgrading, nor shall any notice have been given of any intended or potential downgrading or of any review for a possible change that does not indicate the

29


direction of the possible change, in the rating accorded any securities of the Company by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” as such term is defined for purposes of Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

(iv)

No Suspension of Trading in or Delisting of Common Shares; Other Events. The trading of the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall not have been suspended by the Commission, the Principal Market or FINRA and the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall have been approved for listing or quotation on and shall not have been delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market, the New York Stock Exchange or any of their constituent markets. There shall not have occurred (and be continuing in the case of occurrences under clauses (i) and (ii) below) any of the following: (i) trading or quotation in any of the Company’s securities shall have been suspended or limited by the Commission or by the Principal Market or trading in securities generally on either the Principal Market shall have been suspended or limited, or minimum or maximum prices shall have been generally established on any of such stock exchanges by the Commission or the FINRA; (ii) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of federal or New York, authorities; or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States’ or international political, financial or economic conditions, as in the judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impracticable to market the Shares in the manner and on the terms described in the Prospectus or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities.

(v)

Agent Counsel Opinion and Negative Assurances Letter. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on or prior to each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel to the Agent (“Agent Counsel”), shall have furnished to the Agent a negative assurances letter and the written legal opinion, each dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented. In lieu of such opinion for subsequent periodic filings, Agent Counsel may furnish a reliance letter, permitting the Agent to rely on a previously delivered opinion letter, modified as appropriate for any passage of time or Triggering Event Date (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of such Triggering Event Date).

(vi)

No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Time of Sale Information, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

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(b)Documents Required to be Delivered on each Issuance Notice Date. The Agent’s obligation to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares hereunder shall additionally be conditioned upon the delivery to the Agent on or before the Issuance Notice Date of a certificate in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, executed by the Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, to the effect that all conditions to the delivery of such Issuance Notice shall have been satisfied as at the date of such certificate as required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) (which certificate shall not be required if the foregoing representations shall be set forth in the Issuance Notice).

Section 6. INDEMNIFICATION AND CONTRIBUTION

(a)Indemnification of the Agent. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its officers and employees, and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; or (iii) any act or failure to act or any alleged act or failure to act by the Agent in connection with, or relating in any manner to, the Common Shares or the offering contemplated hereby, and which is included as part of or referred to in any loss, claim, damage, liability or action arising out of or based upon any matter covered by clause (i) or (ii) above, provided that the Company shall not be liable under this clause (iii) to the extent that a court of competent jurisdiction shall have determined by a final judgment that such loss, claim, damage, liability or action resulted directly from any such acts or failures to act undertaken or omitted to be taken by the Agent through its bad faith or willful misconduct, and to reimburse the Agent and each such officer, employee and controlling person for any and all reasonable and documented expenses (including the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of counsel chosen by the Agent) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action; provided, however, that the foregoing indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense to the extent, but only to the extent, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company

31


consists of the information set forth in the first sentence of the ninth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus beginning with the words: “Jefferies and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other financial services . . . .” (the “Agent Information”). The indemnity agreement set forth in this ‎Section 6(a) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Company may otherwise have.

(b)Indemnification of the Company, its Directors and Officers. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signed the Registration Statement and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Company or any such director, officer or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and to reimburse the Company and each such director, officer and controlling person for any and all reasonable and documented expenses (including the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of counsel chosen by the Company) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by the Company or such officer, director or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action; provided, however, that the foregoing indemnity agreement shall only apply to any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense to the extent, but only to the extent, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto). The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(b) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Agent or the Company may otherwise have.

(c)Notifications and Other Indemnification Procedures. Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this ‎Section 6 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against an indemnifying party under this ‎Section 6, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof, but the omission to so notify the indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from any liability which it may have to any indemnified party for contribution or otherwise than under the indemnity agreement contained in this ‎Section 6 or to the extent it is not prejudiced as a proximate result of such failure. In case any such action is brought against any indemnified party and such indemnified party seeks or intends to seek indemnity from an indemnifying party, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in, and, to the extent that it shall elect, jointly

32


with all other indemnifying parties similarly notified, by written notice delivered to the indemnified party promptly after receiving the aforesaid notice from such indemnified party, to assume the defense thereof with counsel reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party; provided, however, if the defendants in any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded based on the advice of counsel that a conflict may arise between the positions of the indemnifying party and the indemnified party in conducting the defense of any such action or that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, the indemnified party or parties shall have the right to select separate counsel to assume such legal defenses and to otherwise participate in the defense of such action on behalf of such indemnified party or parties. Upon receipt of notice from the indemnifying party to such indemnified party of such indemnifying party’s election so to assume the defense of such action and approval by the indemnified party of counsel, the indemnifying party will not be liable to such indemnified party under this ‎Section 6 for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by such indemnified party in connection with the defense thereof unless (i) the indemnified party shall have employed separate counsel in accordance with the proviso to the preceding sentence (it being understood, however, that the indemnifying party shall not be liable for the fees and expenses of more than one separate counsel (together with local counsel), representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action), which counsel (together with any local counsel) for the indemnified parties shall be selected by the Agent (in the case of counsel for the indemnified parties referred to in ‎Section 6(a) above) or the Company (in the case of counsel for the indemnified parties referred to in Section 6(b) above), (ii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of commencement of the action or (iii) the indemnifying party has authorized in writing the employment of counsel for the indemnified party at the expense of the indemnifying party, in each of which cases the fees and expenses of counsel shall be at the expense of the indemnifying party and shall be paid as they are incurred.

(d)Settlements. The indemnifying party under this ‎Section 6 shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense by reason of such settlement or judgment. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by Section 6(c) hereof, the indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 30 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request; and (ii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of the indemnified party, effect any settlement, compromise or consent to the entry of judgment in any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding in respect of which any indemnified party is or could have been a party and indemnity was or could have been sought hereunder by such indemnified party, unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of such indemnified party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such action, suit or proceeding.

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(e)Contribution. If the indemnification provided for in this ‎Section 6 is for any reason held to be unavailable to or otherwise insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party in respect of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein, then each indemnifying party shall contribute to the aggregate amount paid or payable by such indemnified party, as incurred, as a result of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement; or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement shall be deemed to be in the same respective proportions as the net proceeds from the offering of the Shares (net of commissions to the Agent but before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total commissions received by the Agent. The relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any such untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company, on the one hand, or the Agent, on the other hand, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.

The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of the losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses referred to above shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(c), any reasonable and documented legal or other fees or expenses reasonably incurred by such party in connection with investigating or defending any action or claim. The provisions set forth in Section 6(c) with respect to notice of commencement of any action shall apply if a claim for contribution is to be made under this Section 6(e); provided, however, that no additional notice shall be required with respect to any action for which notice has been given under Section 6(c) for purposes of indemnification.

The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 6(e) were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in this Section 6(e).

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the agent fees received by the Agent in connection with the offering contemplated hereby. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 6(e), each officer and employee of the Agent and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Agent, and each director of the Company, each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company with the meaning of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company.

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Section 7. TERMINATION & SURVIVAL

(a)Term. Subject to the provisions of this ‎Section 7, the term of this Agreement shall continue from the date of this Agreement until the end of the Agency Period, unless earlier terminated by the parties to this Agreement pursuant to this ‎Section 7.

(b)Termination; Survival Following Termination.

(i)

Either party may terminate this Agreement prior to the end of the Agency Period, by giving written notice as required by this Agreement, upon five (5) Trading Days’ notice to the other party; provided that, (A) if the Company terminates this Agreement after the Agent confirms to the Company any sale of Shares, the Company shall remain obligated to comply with ‎Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares and (B) ‎Section 2, ‎Section 6, ‎Section 7 and ‎Section 8 shall survive termination of this Agreement. If termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such sale shall nevertheless settle in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.

(ii) In addition to the survival provision of ‎Section 7(b)(i), the respective indemnities, agreements, representations, warranties and other statements of the Company, of its officers and of the Agent set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent or the Company or any of its or their partners, officers or directors or any controlling person, as the case may be, and, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares sold hereunder and any termination of this Agreement.

Section 8. MISCELLANEOUS

(a)Press Releases and Disclosure. The Company may issue a press release describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby as soon as practicable following the date of this Agreement, and may file with the Commission a Current Report on Form 8-K, with this Agreement attached as an exhibit thereto, describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby, and the Company shall consult with the Agent prior to making such disclosures, and the parties hereto shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosures that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto. No party hereto shall issue thereafter any press release or like public statement (including, without limitation, any disclosure required in reports filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act) related to this Agreement or any of the transactions contemplated hereby without the prior written approval of the other party hereto, except as may be necessary or appropriate in the reasonable opinion of the party seeking to make disclosure to comply with the requirements of applicable law or stock exchange rules. If any such press release or like public statement is so required (other than disclosure regarding sales of Common Shares pursuant hereto on current reports on Form 8-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or annual reports on Form 10-K), the party making such disclosure shall consult with the other party prior to making such disclosure, and the parties shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosure that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto.

35


(b)No Advisory or Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including the determination of any fees, are arm’s-length commercial transactions between the Company and the Agent, (ii) when acting as a principal under this Agreement, the Agent is and has been acting solely as a principal and is not the agent or fiduciary of the Company, or its stockholders, creditors, employees or any other party, (iii) the Agent has not assumed nor will assume an advisory or fiduciary responsibility in favor of the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby or the process leading thereto (irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is currently advising the Company on other matters) and the Agent does not have any obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement, (iv) the Agent and its respective affiliates may be engaged in a broad range of transactions that involve interests that differ from those of the Company, and (v) the Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby and the Company has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it deemed appropriate.

(c)Research Analyst Independence. The Company acknowledges that the Agent’s research analysts and research departments are required to and should be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and as such the Agent’s research analysts may hold views and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company or the offering that differ from the views of their respective investment banking divisions. The Company understands that the Agent is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short positions in debt or equity securities of the companies that may be the subject of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(d)Notices. All communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be mailed, hand delivered or telecopied and confirmed to the parties hereto as follows:

If to the Agent:


Jefferies LLC
520 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Attention: General Counsel

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:


Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
1600 El Camino Real #100
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Facsimile: (650) 752-2115
Attention: Stephen Salmon

Email: stephen.salmon@davispolk.com

36


If to the Company:

Ardelyx, Inc.
34175 Ardenwood Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94555
Attention: Chief Executive Officer; Chief Financial Officer; Chief Legal and Administrative Officer

Email: mraab@ardelyx.com; jrenz@ardelyx.com; egrammer@ardelyx.com

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:


Latham & Watkins LLP
140 Scott Drive
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Email: mark.roeder@lw.com
Attention: Mark Roeder

Any party hereto may change the address for receipt of communications by giving written notice to the others in accordance with this ‎Section 8(d).

(e)Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, and to the benefit of the employees, officers and directors and controlling persons referred to in ‎Section 6, and in each case their respective successors, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder. The term “successors” shall not include any purchaser of the Shares as such from the Agent merely by reason of such purchase.

(f)Partial Unenforceability. The invalidity or unenforceability of any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other Article, Section, paragraph or provision hereof. If any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement is for any reason determined to be invalid or unenforceable, there shall be deemed to be made such minor changes (and only such minor changes) as are necessary to make it valid and enforceable.

(g)Governing Law Provisions. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made and to be performed in such state. Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction (except for proceedings instituted in regard to the enforcement of a judgment of any such court, as to which such jurisdiction is non-exclusive) of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The parties irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and

37


unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim in any such court that any such suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

(h)General Provisions. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement of the parties to this Agreement and supersedes all prior written or oral and all contemporaneous oral agreements, understandings and negotiations with respect to the subject matter hereof. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each one of which shall be an original, with the same effect as if the signatures thereto and hereto were upon the same instrument, and may be delivered by facsimile transmission or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file. This Agreement may not be amended or modified unless in writing by all of the parties hereto, and no condition herein (express or implied) may be waived unless waived in writing by each party whom the condition is meant to benefit. The Article and Section headings herein are for the convenience of the parties only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation of this Agreement.

(i)Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes.

(a)In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from the Agent of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

(b)In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity or a BHC Act Affiliate of the Agent becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against the Agent are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

(c)As used in this Section 8(i):

“BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k).

“Covered Entity” means any of the following:

(i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b);

(ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or

(iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b).

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“Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable.

“U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

[Signature Page Immediately Follows]

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If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, kindly sign and return to the Company the enclosed copies hereof, whereupon this instrument, along with all counterparts hereof, shall become a binding agreement in accordance with its terms

Very truly yours,

ARDELYX, INC.

By:  /s/ Justin Renz

Name: Justin Renz

Title: Chief Financial Officer

The foregoing Agreement is hereby confirmed and accepted by the Agent in New York, New York as of the date first above written.

JEFFERIES LLC

By: /s/ Michael Magarro

Name: Michael Magarro

Title: Managing Director


EXHIBIT A

ISSUANCE NOTICE

[Date]

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Attn: [__________]

Reference is made to the Open Market Sale Agreement between Ardelyx, Inc. (the “Company”) and Jefferies LLC (the “Agent”) dated as of July 8, 2020. The Company confirms that all conditions to the delivery of this Issuance Notice are satisfied as of the date hereof.

Date of Delivery of Issuance Notice (determined pursuant to ‎Section 3(b)(i)): _______________________

Issuance Amount (equal to the total Sales Price for such Shares):

$

Number of days in selling period:

First date of selling period:

Last date of selling period:

Settlement Date(s) if other than standard T+2 settlement:

Floor Price Limitation (in no event less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which consent may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion): $ ____ per share

Comments:

_______________________________________

By:

Name:

Title:

A-1


EXHIBIT B

OFFICER’S CERTIFICATE

___________, 20[_]

Reference is made to that certain Open Market Sale Agreement, dated as of July 8, 2020 (the “Agreement”), by and between Ardelyx, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Jefferies LLC. Capitalized terms used without definition herein shall have the meanings assigned thereto in the Agreement.

The undersigned, being the _________ of the Company, hereby certifies on behalf of the Company and not in a personal capacity (and with no personal liability therefor) as follows:

1. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement is in effect, and no proceedings for such purpose are pending before or, to the best of my knowledge, threatened by the Commission.

2. The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 2 of the Agreement are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date.

3. The Company has performed all of its obligations under the Agreement to be performed on or prior to the date hereof.

[Signature Page Immediately Follows]

B-1


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has caused this certificate to be executed as of the date first written above.

Name:

Title:

B-2


EXHIBIT C

SECRETARY’S CERTIFICATE

_____________, 20__

Reference is made to that certain Open Market Sale Agreement, dated as of July 8 (the “Agreement”) by and between Ardelyx, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Jefferies LLC. Capitalized terms used without definition herein shall have the meanings assigned thereto in the Agreement.

The undersigned, being the [Secretary][Assistant Secretary] of the Company, hereby certifies on behalf of the Company, and not in a personal capacity (and with no personal liability therefor) as follows:

1.

No proceeding for the dissolution, merger, consolidation or liquidation of the Company or for the sale of all or substantially all of its assets is pending or, to the best of my knowledge, threatened, and no such proceeding is contemplated by the Company.

2.

Attached hereto as Annex A is a true, correct and complete copy of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, as amended to date (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), as certified by an appropriate public official of the State of Delaware and as in full force and effect as of _________, 20__. No action has been taken by the Company or its stockholders, directors or officers to effect or authorize any amendment or other modification to the Certificate of Incorporation since such date.

3.

Attached hereto as Annex B is a true, correct and complete copy of the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (the “Bylaws”) as in effect at the date hereof and at all times since _________, 20__. No action has been taken by the Company or its stockholders, directors or officers to effect or authorize any amendment or other modification to the Bylaws.

4.

Attached hereto as Annex C is a true, correct and complete copy of resolutions duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company on __________, 20__ authorizing the filing of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the execution and delivery of the Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated thereby (including, without limitation, the issuance of the Shares pursuant to the Agreement). Such resolutions have not been amended or modified, are in full force and effect in the form adopted and are the only resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors or by any committee or officers of or designated by the Board of Directors relating to the Registration Statement, the offering of the Shares and the Agreement.

5.

The Agreement as executed and delivered by the Company is in substantially the form approved by the Company’s Board of Directors in the resolutions referred to in paragraph 4 above.

C-1


6.

Each person who, as an officer or director of the Company, signed the Registration Statement and any amendment thereto was duly elected or appointed, qualified and acting as such officer or director at the respective times of the signing thereof and was duly authorized to sign such document on behalf of the Company, and the signature of each such person appearing on each such document is the genuine signature of such officer or director.

7.

Each person who, as an officer of the Company, signed (a) the Agreement or (b) any other document delivered in connection with the sale and public offering of the Shares and the settlement related thereto was duly elected or appointed, qualified and acting as such officer at the respective times of the signing and delivery thereof and was duly authorized to sign such document on behalf of the Company, and the signature of each such person appearing on each such document is the genuine signature of such officer.

8.

The minute books and records of the Company relating to all proceedings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors (and any committee of the Board of Directors) of the Company made available to Latham & Watkins LLP and Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP are the original minute books and records of the Company, or are true, correct and complete copies thereof, with respect to all proceedings of said stockholders, Board of Directors and committees since _________, 20__. The minute books, records and other documents of the Company made available to Latham & Watkins LLP and Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP were true, correct and complete in all respects, except for _________. There have been no material changes, additions or alterations in said minute books, records and other documents that have not been disclosed to Latham & Watkins LLP Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP in writing.

[Signature Page Immediately Follows]

C-2


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has caused this certificate to be executed as of the date first written above.

Name:

Title:

C-3


Schedule A

Notice Parties

The Company

Michael Raab

#############

###-###-####

Justin Renz

#############

###-###-####

Elizabeth Grammer

#############

###-###-####

The Agent

Michael Magarro

#############

###-###-####

Dustin Tyner

#############

###-###-####


Exhibit 4.4

ARDELYX, INC.


INDENTURE

Dated as of [], 20[]


[]

Trustee


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

1

Section 1.1. 

Definitions.

1

Section 1.2. 

Other Definitions.

4

Section 1.3. 

Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

4

Section 1.4. 

Rules of Construction.

5

ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES

5

Section 2.1. 

Issuable in Series.

5

Section 2.2. 

Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

6

Section 2.3. 

Execution and Authentication.

8

Section 2.4. 

Registrar and Paying Agent.

9

Section 2.5. 

Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

10

Section 2.6. 

Securityholder Lists.

10

Section 2.7. 

Transfer and Exchange.

10

Section 2.8. 

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

10

Section 2.9. 

Outstanding Securities.

11

Section 2.10. 

Treasury Securities.

12

Section 2.11. 

Temporary Securities.

12

Section 2.12. 

Cancellation.

12

Section 2.13. 

Defaulted Interest.

12

Section 2.14. 

Global Securities.

13

Section 2.15. 

CUSIP Numbers.

14

ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION

15

Section 3.1. 

Notice to Trustee.

15

Section 3.2. 

Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

15

Section 3.3. 

Notice of Redemption.

15

Section 3.4. 

Effect of Notice of Redemption.

16

Section 3.5. 

Deposit of Redemption Price.

16

Section 3.6. 

Securities Redeemed in Part.

16

ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS

17

Section 4.1. 

Payment of Principal and Interest.

17

Section 4.2. 

SEC Reports.

17

Section 4.3. 

Compliance Certificate.

17

Section 4.4. 

Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

17

ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS

18

Section 5.1. 

When Company May Merge, Etc.

18

Section 5.2. 

Successor Corporation Substituted.

18

ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

19

Section 6.1. 

Events of Default.

19

i


Section 6.2. 

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

20

Section 6.3. 

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

21

Section 6.4. 

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

21

Section 6.5. 

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

22

Section 6.6. 

Application of Money Collected.

22

Section 6.7. 

Limitation on Suits.

23

Section 6.8. 

Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

23

Section 6.9. 

Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

23

Section 6.10. 

Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

24

Section 6.11. 

Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

24

Section 6.12. 

Control by Holders.

24

Section 6.13. 

Waiver of Past Defaults.

25

Section 6.14. 

Undertaking for Costs.

25

ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE

25

Section 7.1. 

Duties of Trustee.

25

Section 7.2. 

Rights of Trustee.

26

Section 7.3. 

Individual Rights of Trustee.

28

Section 7.4. 

Trustee’s Disclaimer.

28

Section 7.5. 

Notice of Defaults.

28

Section 7.6. 

Reports by Trustee to Holders.

28

Section 7.7. 

Compensation and Indemnity.

28

Section 7.8. 

Replacement of Trustee.

29

Section 7.9. 

Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

30

Section 7.10. 

Eligibility; Disqualification.

30

Section 7.11. 

Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

30

ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

31

Section 8.1. 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

31

Section 8.2. 

Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

32

Section 8.3. 

Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

32

Section 8.4. 

Covenant Defeasance.

34

Section 8.5. 

Repayment to Company.

35

Section 8.6. 

Reinstatement.

35

ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

35

Section 9.1. 

Without Consent of Holders.

35

Section 9.2. 

With Consent of Holders.

36

Section 9.3. 

Limitations.

37

Section 9.4. 

Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

37

Section 9.5. 

Revocation and Effect of Consents.

37

Section 9.6. 

Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

38

Section 9.7. 

Trustee Protected.

38

ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS

38

Section 10.1. 

Trust Indenture Act Controls.

38

Section 10.2. 

Notices.

38

ii


Section 10.3. 

Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

40

Section 10.4. 

Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

40

Section 10.5. 

Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

40

Section 10.6. 

Rules by Trustee and Agents.

41

Section 10.7. 

Legal Holidays.

41

Section 10.8. 

No Recourse Against Others.

41

Section 10.9. 

Counterparts.

41

Section 10.10. 

Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction.

41

Section 10.11. 

No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

42

Section 10.12. 

Successors.

42

Section 10.13. 

Severability.

42

Section 10.14. 

Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

42

Section 10.15. 

Securities in a Foreign Currency.

42

Section 10.16. 

Judgment Currency.

43

Section 10.17. 

Force Majeure.

43

Section 10.18. 

U.S.A. Patriot Act.

44

ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS

44

Section 11.1. 

Applicability of Article.

44

Section 11.2. 

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

44

Section 11.3. 

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

45

iii


ARDELYX, INC.

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of [], 20[]

§ 310(a)(1)

7.10

(a)(2)

7.10

(a)(3)

Not Applicable

(a)(4)

Not Applicable

(a)(5)

7.10

(b)

7.10

§ 311(a)

7.11

(b)

7.11

(c)

Not Applicable

§ 312(a)

2.6

(b)

10.3

(c)

10.3

§ 313(a)

7.6

(b)(1)

7.6

(b)(2)

7.6

(c)(1)

7.6

(d)

7.6

§ 314(a)

4.2, 10.5

(b)

Not Applicable

(c)(1)

10.4

(c)(2)

10.4

(c)(3)

Not Applicable

(d)

Not Applicable

(e)

10.5

(f)

Not Applicable

§ 315(a)

7.1

(b)

7.5

(c)

7.1

(d)

7.1

(e)

6.14

§ 316(a)

2.10

(a)(1)(A)

6.12

(a)(1)(B)

6.13

(b)

6.8

§ 317(a)(1)

6.3

(a)(2)

6.4

(b)

2.5

§ 318(a)

10.1


Note:  This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

iv


Indenture dated as of [], 20[] between Ardelyx, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware (“Company”), and [] (“Trustee”).

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.1.   Definitions.

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person.   For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York, New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

Capital Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock.

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.


Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered.

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

“GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

2


interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and any Vice President of the Company.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is acceptable to the Trustee.  The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. The opinion may contain customary limitations, conditions and exceptions.

person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

Subsidiary” of any specified person means any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person or a combination thereof.

3


TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

Section 1.2.    Other Definitions.

    

DEFINED IN

TERM

SECTION

Bankruptcy Law

6.1

Custodian

6.1

Event of Default

6.1

Judgment Currency

10.16

Legal Holiday

10.7

mandatory sinking fund payment

11.1

New York Banking Day

10.16

Notice Agent

2.4

optional sinking fund payment

11.1

Paying Agent

2.4

Registrar

2.4

Required Currency

10.16

Specified Courts

10.10

successor person

5.1

Section 1.3.    Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture.  The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

4


Commission” means the SEC.

indenture securities” means the Securities.

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.4.    Rules of Construction.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)    a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b)    an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(c)    “or” is not exclusive;

(d)    words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

(e)    provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

ARTICLE II.

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.1.   Issuable in Series.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.  The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined.  Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

5


Section 2.2.    Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

2.2.1.    the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

2.2.2.    the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

2.2.3.    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6);

2.2.4.    the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

2.2.5.    the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

2.2.6.    the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

2.2.7.    if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

2.2.8.    the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

6


2.2.9.    the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

2.2.10.    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

2.2.11.    the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

2.2.12.    if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.13.    the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

2.2.14.    the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

2.2.15.    if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

2.2.16.    the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

2.2.17.    the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

2.2.18.    any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.19.    any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

2.2.20.    any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

2.2.21.    the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion

7


or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

2.2.22.    any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series; and

2.2.23.    whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

Section 2.3.    Execution and Authentication.

An Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent.  The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on:  (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

8


The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents or a committee of Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities.  An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so.  Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent.  An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

Section 2.4.    Registrar and Paying Agent.

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”).  The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange.  The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.  If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands; provided, however, that any appointment of the Trustee as the Notice Agent shall exclude the appointment of the Trustee or any office of the Trustee as an agent to receive the service of legal process on the Company.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes.  The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent.  The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent.  The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

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Section 2.5.    Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment.  While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee.  The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee.  Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money.  If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent.  Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

Section 2.6.    Securityholder Lists.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA  § 312(a).  If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

Section 2.7.    Transfer and Exchange.

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met.  To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authe